Biological sensor is an analytical device that determines the presence of chemical substances with the help of interaction between biological materials (enzyme, hormone, antibody, cell, genetic material like DNA, RNA) and analyte blood cell (cell-like RBC, protein, urine, vitamin ) which needs to be measured.
The chemical or physiological changes are well measurable through a transducer that produces electrical signals or impulses. These impulses generally bear low frequency. However, the frequency needs to be amplified.
To enhance the frequency, an amplifier is required. After getting amplified, the processor is used to display the impulses. Thus, the components of a biosensor work like a team to provide a measurable quantity. Some of the types of biosensor are:
- Calorimetric biosensor: Mainly used for detecting temperature or thermal changes by heat absorbing or heat released.
2. Optical biosensor: Used for detecting light change and there is an enzyme called luciferase
3.Potentiometric biosensor: Detect electron production
4. Amperometric biosensor: Measure electron flow like glucose test
5. Acoustic wave biosensor: Used in the field of sports as it tracks out cocaine and doping tests.
The immense amenities of Biosensor:
- Microbial food analysis: Pathogens are very common and accessible in food. Some of the highly sensitive food borne pathogens are responsible for degrading food and using conventional methods for detecting this pathogen is a daunting task.
- However, biosensors give an ultimate idea of how easily it can be detected. It doesn’t need a highly professional personality. For example, VBNC can be detected by biosensors other than general methods that can’t detect it.
- Medical Diagnosis: Biosensor is most probably applied in the area of medical science. As it is easy to use, highly specific, durable, doesn’t take long like conventional methods, it might be used in day to day life for checking heartbeat, blood pressure (bp), urine test, blood test etc.
- Wireless biosensor: As biosensor transforms biological facts into electrical signals, it needs an electric circuit. However recent research and analysis suggests that implantable wireless methods can be used. For instance, wireless blood glucose test,wireless drug development.
- Meditated nano biosensing: What if there is an early detection of any disease, then there will be significant time for treatment. Various nanoparticles like Gold, Carbon, Silver are injurious to the health system. However if the analyte notices disease dependent changes by robust and accurate method, it is fast to diagnose and treat.
- Pharmaceutical and drug analysis: Drugs can be analyzed by biosensor as enzyme inhibitions and drug DNA interaction is advantageous compared to other aspects. Quantitative analysis also provides a vast area to research. Specific cells have specific DNA, thus specific DNA needs specific drugs to recover any disease.
- Study of biomolecules: Protein, amino acid, carbohydrate, vitamin, enzyme is the main source of biomolecules. The study and analysis of biomolecules is prominent in the research sector.
- Industrial and pollution control: Industrial waste pollutes water and water quality that should be analyzed using parameters like COD, BOD, TDS, and PH. Biosensors can be used as an analyzer for the detection of harmful products. Air pollution is also analyzed by biosensors by analyzing air pollutants like carbon, methane, ethane, dust, sulfur dioxide etc.
Biosensor is used in the agricultural industry, for determining HCG hormone for pregnancy test, fitness and smart band controlling and checking bp, heartbeat and all, In ICU, Soil sensor, DNA based sensor.
- Biosensors – an overview
- Figure 4. Schematic diagram showing the main component of a biosensor….(image)
Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
Jashore University of Science and Technology